Key Ingredients: PEPTIDES - Peptides are excellent for combatting wrinkles and any good anti-aging formula would contain them. Peptides, which contain long chains of amino acids, are absorbed by the skin and help to repair and boost collagen regrowth, which in turn firms the skin. Really good anti-aging products use a combination of peptides. HYALURONIC ACID - Hyaluronic acid is a very effective humectant that helps traps moisture in the skin. It is also a naturally occurring polysaccharide (carbohydrate) in the human body and it is present in large amounts in the spaces between skin cells, where it provides moisture, plumpness, firmness and suppleness to the skin. Doctors, such as Doctor Oz, have been touting products that use Hyaluronic acid. Whether or not you agree with the products he endorses, the one ingredient that frequently comes up in his discussions is Hyaluronic Acid. RETINYL PALMITATE - Retinyl is the ester of Retinol (Vitamin A) and it is combined with Palmitic Acid, which is a saturated fatty acid that is found in humans, animals and plants and is (as the name implies) a major component of palm oil. Although it isn't (strictly speaking) Retinol, Retinyl Palmitate is easily absorbed by the skin and once it is there is converted into Retinol. Studies have shown that Retinyl Palmitate plumps the skin and enhances collagen production. NIACINAMIDE PC - Niacinamide PC has multiple beneficial effects on the skin: it improves skin hydration, increases certain types of proteins, stimulates collagen secretion, reduces the appearance of acne and imparts a more even skin tone. ARGANIA SPINOSA EXTRACT - What is also unique about our anti-aging products is that J. Paul uses culture extracts from the African plant tree Argania Spinosa. These Moroccan trees live up to 200 years old and they produce argan oil, which is great for moisturizing the skin deep beneath the skin.